Construction and Demolition

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Construction and Demolition (C&D) debris, which is waste or excess material resulting from building new structures and from the remodeling, repair, demolition or deconstruction of existing buildings. C&D debris makes up about 1/3 of Orange County's total waste stream, or about 31,000 tons of waste per year.

For every two pounds of garbage put in your garbage can, another pound of C&D waste is generated in our County. Find out what Orange County's C&D waste stream is made of. OCSWMD operates construction and demolition waste management consisting of both landfill and recycling facilities. Click here for the tipping fee schedule.

The Regulated Recyclable Material Ordinance

Orange County requires the recycling of certain C&D materials: corrugated cardboard, clean wood (wood that has not been painted or treated) and scrap metal. The ordinance states that construction and demolition projects must have a waste management plan in place, waste haulers must be licensed, and that these requirements will be enforced. Read the entire ordinance here.

The Town of Chapel Hill, on behalf of the Orange County Solid Waste Management Department, charges a fee for review and processing of Regulated Materials Permits associated with all new building permits issued by the Chapel Hill Inspections Department. The fee is 8% of the building permit fee (based on the Town of Chapel Hill fee schedule).

List of Regulated Materials that must be recycled
Options for recycling in compliance with ordinance
Certified Construction Waste Material Reclamation Facilities
Recyclable Materials and Solid Waste Management Permits
Do I Need A Haulers License--Decision Flowchart
List of Licensed Haulers
Apply for a Haulers License
Enforcement and Penalties
Frequently Asked Questions

What Must Be Recycled?

arrows bullet Clean Wood Waste



· Scrap lumber (2x4 type)

· Crossties

· Mill ends

· Landscaping timbers

· Oriented Strand Board (OSB)

· Masonite

· Pallets

· Painted or Stained Wood

· Plywood

· Treated wood

· Wood concrete forms with low amounts of plaster or concrete

· Telephone poles

· Regular construction nails, bolts, screws are OK

· Wood with tar or other roofing materials

arrows bulletScrap Metal 
Including, but not limited to cast iron tubs, aluminum gutters and siding, bedsprings, metal pipe, steel studs, tin roofing, and other items containing significant amounts of metal.

arrows bulletCorrugated Cardboard 
Corrugated Cardboard has three layers; 2 flat on the outside and one wavy layer in the middle. Do not recycle pizza boxes, cardboard with a wax coating, or other contaminated cardboard.

It is illegal to intentionally contaminate any recyclable material as to make it non-recyclable.

Burning garbage anywhere in Orange County is unlawful. Report illegal burning and dumping. 

Options for Recycling
Jobsite Separation: Regulated recyclable materials separated at the jobsite and transported to the Orange County Landfill will significantly reduce the amount of tipping fees you have to pay. You may either take the materials to the landfill yourself, or hire a licensed hauler. Click here for a list.

Mixed C&D Materials Reclamation Facilities (MRF): Builders may choose to use a mixed recycling facility, bypassing jobsite separation. Only County certified facilities may be used.

Current Certified MRF's:


Phone Number


Map Link

Wake Reclamation

(919) 835-2776

421 Raleigh View Rd. Raleigh, NC 27610


 A-1 Sandrock

(336) 855-8195

 2091 Bishop Rd, Greensboro, NC 27406


Coble Sandrock

(336) 565-4750

Foster Store Rd.
Liberty, NC 27298


Shotwell Transfer II (Apex facility)

(919) 790-5702

1504 Salem St.
Apex, NC 27502



Reuse/Donations: Regulated recyclable materials, depending on their condition, may be reused, resold, or donated to a charity. If you have unused or reusable materials, visit the "A-Z Recyclery" .

Deconstruction: Large demolition projects may be delayed up to 60 days in order to conduct an assessment of the recyclability or reusability of materials in the structure.

Recyclable Materials and Solid Waste Management Plan Permits
Orange County Recycling Materials Permit Application: Orange County or the town in which you are building issues the RM permits with your building permit. You can apply for it at either the Zoning Compliance or Building Permit stage. The permit requires estimates of the types of waste anticipated and intended method to manage them. Your application will be processed within 10 days. Use the Recycling Materials Permit Application GUIDE to assist you in filling out the application.

Solid Waste Management Plan Application: Download the application here or pick up a permit application at Planning or Inspections Departments. Some municipalities may require you to submit it directly to the Solid Waste Management Department. 

Hauler Licence Application:Waste haulers who operate in Orange County and use vehicles greater than 9000 lbs GVW to haul recyclable materials must be licensed annually by the Solid Waste Management Department. Each vehicle used for this purpose must be licensed. Violations incurred on any registered vehicle subject the company's license to suspension or revocation.

Enforcement and Penalties

No Mixed Waste Loads
Mixed loads disposed of at the Orange County Construction and Demolition landfill that contain wood, metal, pallets, and/or corrugated cardboard will be charged double the tip fee. Tickets will be compiled and sent out with monthly bills for regular customers or the customer may choose to pay tickets individually.

No Recyclable Material Permit
Individuals found to be conducting building activities without the appropriate Recyclable Material Permit will be issued a civil citation.

Hauling Without a License
Individuals found hauling recyclable materials without the appropriate Recyclable Material Collector's License will be issued a civil citation.

Jobsite Inspections
Solid Waste Enforcement staff and Inspections Departments regularly visit job sites. These personnel will inform the Solid Waste Department when solid waste violations are noted.

Verification Tags
To ensure that loads of regulated materials are reaching certified MRF’s, Solid Waste Enforcement staff will place verification tags on roll-off containers, dumpsters, and other storage containers. These tags must be given to the scale house operator at the certified facility.  Click here to see a sample verification tag.

Illegal Disposal
Unauthorized disposal, landfill disposal, burning, or hauling the materials to a non-certified facility are illegal actions and subject to civil penalties and revocation of permits! Report Illegal Burning and Dumping.

Regulated Recyclable Materials produced in Orange County must be recycled properly. Proper disposal includes:

• Separating the materials for recycling at the Orange County Construction and Demolition Landfill, 1514 Eubanks Rd. Chapel Hill 27516
• Hauling the materials to a County certified materials reclamation facility 
• Reuse or Resale

Certain building materials pose a threat to health and the environment and must be handled according to local, state and federal regulations.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why did Orange County pass this ordinance? 
In the late 1990’s it was recognized that the Construction & Demolition (C&D) landfill on Eubanks Road was going to be filled sometime in 2003. The Orange County Board of County Commissioners agreed to build a new C&D landfill but only if certain bulky materials (those materials that take up the most room in the landfill) were required to be recycled. As a result, the Regulated Recyclable Materials Ordinance went into effect on October 1, 2002.

My business isn’t construction, but I still have wood, metal, and/or cardboard in my waste. Do I still need to recycle?
This ordinance is designed to regulate not a particular industry, but certain materials. Metal, wood, pallets, and corrugated cardboard from the commercial waste stream are subject to the same recycling requirement as those produced from construction and demolition projects. The Solid Waste Department staff can help you get a recycling program set up.

What about demolition waste? 
Demolition waste includes a great deal of wood and metal, both recyclable materials, but separating these materials is often difficult. Demolition waste must still be recycled if free of contaminants. But the waste would not be considered free of contaminants if it is attached to other material in a way that it is not reasonably possible to separate.