One or more health conditions increase the risk of getting very sick with COVID-19. What are those conditions?

If you test positive for COVID-19 and have one or more health conditions that increase your risk of becoming very sick, treatment may be available. Contact a health professional right away after a positive test to determine if you may be eligible, even if your symptoms are mild right now. Don’t delay: Treatment must be started within the first few days to be effective.

Source: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

Medical Conditions

  • The conditions on this list are in alphabetical order. They are not in order of risk.
  • CDC completed a review for each medical condition on this list. This was done to ensure that these conditions met criteria for inclusion on this list. CDC conducts ongoing reviews of additional underlying conditions. If other medical conditions have enough evidence, they might be added to the list.
  • Because we are learning more about COVID-19 every day, this list does not include all medical conditions that place a person at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Rare medical conditions, including many conditions that mostly affect children, may not be included on the list below. We will update the list as we learn more.
  • A person with a condition that is not listed may still be at greater risk of getting very sick from COVID-19 than other people who do not have the condition. It is important that you talk with your healthcare professional about your risk.

Cancer

Having cancer can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19. Treatments for many types of cancer can weaken your body’s ability to fight off disease. At this time, based on available studies, having a history of cancer may increase your risk.

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Chronic kidney disease

Having chronic kidney disease of any stage can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Chronic liver disease

Having chronic liver disease can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19. Chronic liver disease can include alcohol-related liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, and cirrhosis (or scarring of the liver).

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Chronic lung diseases

Having a chronic lung disease can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19. Chronic lung diseases can include:

  • Asthma, if it’s moderate to severe
  • Bronchiectasis (thickening of the lungs’ airways)
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (chronic lung disease affecting newborns)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including emphysema and chronic bronchitis
  • Having damaged or scarred lung tissue known as interstitial lung disease (including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis)
  • Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs)
  • Pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs)

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Cystic Fibrosis

Having cystic fibrosis, with or without lung or other solid organ transplant (like kidney, liver, intestines, heart, and pancreas) can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Dementia or other neurological conditions

Having neurological conditions, such as dementia, can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Diabetes (type 1 or type 2)

Having either type 1 or type 2 diabetes can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Disabilities

People with some types of disabilities may be more likely to get very sick from COVID-19 because of underlying medical conditions, living in congregate settings, or systemic health and social inequities, including:

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Heart conditions

Having heart conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, and possibly high blood pressure (hypertension) can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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HIV infection

Having HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Immunocompromised state (weakened immune system)

Some people are immunocompromised or have a weakened immune system. For example, people on chemotherapy or who have had a solid organ transplant, like a kidney transplant or heart transplant. Being immunocompromised can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19. Many conditions and treatments can cause a person to be immunocompromised or have a weakened immune system. For example, some people inherit problems with their immune system. One example is called Primary immunodeficiency. Other people have to use certain types of medicines for a long time, like corticosteroids, that weaken their immune system. Such long-term uses can lead to secondary or acquired immunodeficiency.

People who are immunocompromised or are taking medicines that weaken their immune system may not be protected even if they are up to date on their vaccines. They should continue to take all precautions recommended for people who are not vaccinated people, including wearing a well-fitting mask, until advised otherwise by their healthcare professionals.

After completing the primary series, some moderately or severely immunocompromised people should get an additional primary shot.

Everyone 12 years and older, including immunocompromised people, should get a booster shot. If you are eligible for an additional primary shot, you should get this dose first before you get a booster shot.

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Mental health conditions

Having mood disorders, including depression, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Overweight and obesity

Overweight (defined as a body mass index (BMI) is 25 kg/m2 or higher, but under 30 kg/m2), obesity (BMI is  30 kg/m2 or higher, but under 40 kg/m2), or severe obesity (BMI is  40 kg/m2 or higher), can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19. The risk of severe COVID-19 illness increases sharply with higher BMI.

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Physical inactivity

People who do little or no physical activity, or exercise, are more likely to get very sick from COVID-19 than those who are physically active. Being physically active (or exercising regularly) is important to being healthy. Get more information on physical activity and health, physical activity recommendations, how to become more active, and how to create activity-friendly communities:

Pregnancy

Pregnant and recently pregnant people (for at least 42 days following end of pregnancy) are more likely to get very sick from COVID-19 compared with non-pregnant people.

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Sickle cell disease or thalassemia

Having hemoglobin blood disorders like sickle cell disease (SCD) or thalassemia can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Smoking, current or former

Being a current or former cigarette smoker can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19. If you currently smoke, quit. If you used to smoke, don’t start again. If you’ve never smoked, don’t start.

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Solid organ or blood stem cell transplant

Having had a solid organ or blood stem cell transplant, which includes bone marrow transplants, can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Stroke or cerebrovascular disease, which affects blood flow to the brain

Having cerebrovascular disease, such as having a stroke, can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Substance use disorders

Having a substance use disorder (such as alcohol, opioid, or cocaine use disorder) can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Tuberculosis

Having tuberculosis can make you more likely to get very sick from COVID-19.

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Show All Answers

1. What COVID-19 Vaccines are Available?
2. What ages are eligible to be vaccinated?
3. How do we know COVID-19 vaccines are safe for kids?
4. If the vaccine works for other people, why do kids need it?
5. I have already had COVID-19. Do I still need to get vaccinated?
6. Who should get a COVID-19 booster shot?
7. Is the second COVID-19 booster vaccine available?
8. I am immunocompromised. Do I need an additional shot?
9. How do the COVID-19 vaccines work?
10. Will the vaccines cause side effects?
11. How were the COVID-19 vaccines produced so quickly?
12. Can I get COVID-19 from these vaccines?
13. Can receiving a COVID-19 vaccine cause you to be magnetic?
14. Do COVID-19 vaccines contain microchips?
15. Can the COVID-19 vaccine alter my DNA?
16. Is it safe for me to get the COVID-19 vaccine if I would like to have a baby one day?
17. Will getting a COVID-19 vaccine cause me to test positive for COVID-19 on a viral test?
18. What can you do once you are fully vaccinated?
19. I missed my 2nd shot of the mRNA vaccine. What should I do?
20. I am homebound or unable to travel to a COVID-19 vaccine clinic. What should I do?
21. I lost my vaccine card. How can I get a new one?
22. How do I host a COVID-19 vaccine event?
23. What is the difference between quarantine and isolation?
24. If I test positive for COVID-19, what should I do?
25. If I was exposed to someone with COVID-19, what should I do?
26. When can I leave isolation if I had COVID-19 symptoms?
27. One or more health conditions increase the risk of getting very sick with COVID-19. What are those conditions?